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Bim Willow, who has taught classes in willow work at the Chicago Botanic Garden for more than a decade, never tires of showing students how to tap into their creativity.

“That twinkle in the eyes of the students after they finish a project and look at it and they’re dancing, they’re giggling, and they say ‘I can’t believe I made it.’ Then they come back the next year and say, ‘You know, I’ve showed off my piece to people and everybody who has seen my piece says: I can’t believe you made that! But now I do believe it.’

That realization, says Willow, about going from ‘I can’t believe I can do this’ to ‘I now believe I can,’ is a big reason he’ll teach four Willow Workshops—Holiday Tree, Garden Bench, Rustic Reindeer, and Rocking Chair—November 11 at the Garden.

A chair workshop participant begins to attach the bent willow forming the seat and back to her chair frame.

A chair workshop participant begins to attach the bent willow forming the seat and back to her chair frame.

A happy Bim WIllow student works on her rustic shelf from an earlier workshop.

A happy Bim WIllow student works on her rustic shelf from an earlier workshop.

Students, he says, need not be masters of hammers and nails. “It’s really easy to learn how to nail, but it’s a lot harder to unlearn how to do it the wrong way—like so many other things in life.”

And while he teaches techniques, Willow also encourages individual creativity. “Students learn the technique of how to make something structurally sound,” he told us in a phone chat. “That’s functional. But the aesthetic part is now in their ballpark.”

“That’s where you get to use your imagination and take these sticks and create something beautiful out of it,” he says. “Imagination is all in our head. And my class is about taking it out and playing with it.”

Bim Willow supervises construction on a rustic chair frame.

Bim Willow supervises construction of a rustic chair frame.

Bim’s fascination with willow prompted a name tweak for this artist born Lawrence Schackow 65 years ago. Willow, who lives in southwestern Michigan, built his first willow chair in 1972 and started Willow Works, Inc., in 1985.

“Willow is one of those renewable resources. And for the style of furniture I build, willow is the best wood because of its flexible nature. But mostly because it’s free.

“For for the benches, we’re mostly going to be using sassafras, which is free wood. It’s durable,” he says. “And willow will be just for the trimming. I use willow that grows in the ditches that people are trying to get rid of because it clogs up the ditches. It’s not like a weeping willow tree.  …The willow that I use is a resource that people are trying to get rid of.”

“Basically, the class is about taking anything that people are trying to get rid of and turning it into something that people want.”

Willow calls himself “an author, artist, poet, and fool” on his Facebook page—a nod to his early work as a mime and clown. But he has several books to his credit, including furniture-making books, children’s books, and more in the works, like a collection of his one-liners he calls Bimisms.

“We are taught at an early age to stop being creative and start becoming productive,” he says. “And I’m here to reverse that.”

It’s about taking people back to a time when creativity was something they did instead of bought. And each one of us has that creative side.

If you think about a machine, he said, “I’m more of a social lubricant than a cog or a gear. So I slide in and out of the machine with creativity and show people that (creativity) can help take some of the friction out. But it’s also about people finding that within themselves.”


Guest blogger Judith Hevrdejs-King is a freelance writer.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Gerit Quealy is passionate about the Bard of Avon.

Her latest book, Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium of All the Flowers, Fruits, Herbs, Trees, Seeds, and Grasses Cited by the World’s Greatest Playwright (HarperCollins), is beautiful proof. She will talk Shakespeare at a lecture and book signing at 1 p.m. Sunday, October 15, at the Chicago Botanic Garden.

Honeysuckle illustration by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins for Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium

Honeysuckle illustration by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins

The book’s splendid illustrations are by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins and its foreword is by Helen Mirren—yes, Dame Helen’s an avid gardener. But it is Quealy, the book’s writer and editor, who dug through historical manuscripts from the sixteenth century’s “Elizabethan horticultural boom” to unearth more than 170 plant references in Shakespeare’s poems and plays.

For instance, apples often play a role in the Bard’s works, for as Quealy writes: “Shakespeare finds the apple ripe for metaphor.” Consider the Apple-John variety in Henry IV: “I am withered like an old Apple-John,” says Falstaff.

The mix of history and mystery captivated Quealy, who as a child read every Nancy Drew book she could find. It took 20 years to research and compile the book. “Letters and manuscripts still have not been transcribed because not enough people know how to do it, and it’s costly and time-consuming,” she told us. “And I was like, wow, there’s this secret repository of stuff.”

With no historical photographs to work with, though, Quealy and artist Sumie “had a lot of talks about the color things were.”

Gourd illustration by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins for Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium

Gourd by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins

The book should charm gardeners who might prepare an autumn feast by emulating the Bard’s locavore and organic credentials. Quealy suggests featuring carrots, turnips, potatoes, leeks, apples, grapes, plums, pears, thyme, or marjoram. Shakespeare, as noted in Quealy’s book, can provide conversation starters for each of these ingredients.

Potatoes: “Let the sky rain potatoes; let it thunder to the tune of Greensleeves…” (Falstaff in Merry Wives of Windsor)

Apples:  “I will make an end of my dinner. There’s Pippins and cheese to come.” (Sir Hugh Evans in Merry Wives of Windsor)

Grapes:  “The tartness of his face sours ripe grapes.” (Menenius in Coriolanus)

Leeks: “His eyes were green as leeks.” (Thisbe in A Midsummer Night’s Dream)

Plums: “There’s no more faith in thee than in a stewed prune.” (Falstaff in Henry IV)

Quealy has been in love with the Bard since a traveling troupe performed Twelfth Night for her third-grade class. “I just think the story and the way the story unfolded, maybe the rhythm of the language, is something that I responded to,” she says.

Grapes illustration by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins for Botanical Shakespeare: An Illustrated Compendium

Grapes illustration by Sumié Hasegawa-Collins

Born in Virginia, raised in Florida, and now living in New York, Quealy has been an actor (theater, television), a journalist (newspapers, magazines), and an author. A television project is in the works (FLOTUS: Playing the Woman Card in the White House); as is a project on Shakespeare’s kitchen.

The Garden event will include a lutenist and a soprano, who will perform during the free October 15 program (preregistration required). Quealy hopes the event and the book will help people connect with Shakespeare. “Shakespeare is all around you.”


Guest blogger Judith Hevrdejs-King is a freelance writer.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

The Supreme Court has been asked to opine on many critical issues of its time. These cases have had profound impacts on our society and even the progression of democracy. But perhaps the most important Supreme Court case of all time—at least if you are a hard-core plant geek—was Nix v. Hedden, 1893, in which the Court ruled that the tomato is, for the purposes of taxation, a vegetable.

In the spring of 1886, the Nix family made their living importing tomatoes into New York City from the West Indies. Based on the Tariff Act of 1883, the New York Port tax collector assessed a duty on these imported tomatoes. The Tariff Act required a 10 percent duty on “vegetables in their natural state…” But, the Nix family contended, a tomato is a fruit, botanically speaking, and should not be taxed as a vegetable. The New York tax collector was unmoved by this argument and forced the family to pay the tax, though he did record that the tax was paid under protest.

Blindfolded Lady Justice weighs a tomatoPeople were just as reluctant to pay taxes in 1886 as they are today, and as any good botanist of the nineteenth or twenty-first centuries would tell you, the tomato is indeed a fruit. Its tissues derive from the reproductive organs of the plant (and contain seeds), making it a textbook fruit. It’s not even botanically confusing like the oddball strawberry, which is technically a swollen receptacle that holds fruits (the little black achenes on the strawberry’s surface). A tomato is about as clearly a fruit as there is, botanically speaking.

Yet, in common language, we tend to think of fruits as sweet and vegetables as savory. Or perhaps more basically, fruits are for dessert and vegetable go with the main course.

When the tax assessor for the New York Harbor used the common language meaning of tomato as the rationale to levy a tax, in opposition to the botanical definition used by the Nix family, I doubt he knew he was opening a legal can of worms that would end up in the Supreme Court.

The Nix family sued the tax collector. The case was heard by the Circuit Court of the Southern District of New York. The case primarily consisted of entering into testimony the dictionary definitions of fruit and vegetable. The court sided with the tax collector, and the Nixes appealed. Somewhat amazingly, the Supreme Court agreed to hear the case, and registered judgement on May 10, 1893.

By this point, the case was not so much about whether or not a tomato is botanically a fruit. In fact, in his opinion, Justice Horace Gray of Massachusetts freely admitted that “botanically speaking, tomatoes are the fruit of the vine…” But he made a distinction between the common language of the people and the botanical definition. Specifically, he noted that tomatoes are “usually served at dinner in, with, or after the soup, fish, or meats which constitute the principle part of the repast, and not, like fruits generally, as dessert.” He even cited from Supreme Court precedent. In 1889, Robertson v. Salomon, the Court held that, again for tax purposes, white beans (which definitely are seeds) should be taxed as vegetables, and not classified as seeds, which were exempted from taxation. Justice Joseph P. Bradley of New Jersey wrote of white beans, “We do not see why they should be classified as seeds, any more than walnuts should be so classified. Both are seeds, in the language of botany or natural history, but not in commerce nor in common parlance.”

Grape tomatoesRead more about cultivating tomatoes in our Tomato Talk series on Facebook (#CBGTomatoTalk) and at chicagobotanic.org

The Supreme Court unequivocally stated in Robertson v. Salomon and then reaffirmed in Nix v. Hedden that a technical definition should not necessarily stand in the way of an ordinary or common meaning. According to the high court, tomatoes and white beans are not fruit and seeds, respectively. They can, and should, be taxed as vegetables.

These cases are important to legal history in delineating the differences between technical and common usages of words under legal dispute. But what should a botanist learn from this legal tomato obscurity?

Principally, science and the law are quite different systems. You may conflate them at your own peril. Scientific logic is not always compatible or supported by legal doctrine. Under the law, up can be down, black can be white, and tomatoes aren’t fruits.

And above all, it’s very hard to avoid paying taxes.


Dr. Ari Novy

Dr. Ari Novy

Guest blogger Ari Novy, Ph.D., is chief scientist at the Leichtag Foundation in Encinitas, California, and a research collaborator at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. He’s interested in pretty much everything about plants, including obscure legal minutiae.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

What is it about dahlias?

Guest Blogger —  September 7, 2017 — 1 Comment

When it comes to showstoppers, Shakespeare may have elevated the rose to star status with his line, “Of all the flowers, methinks a rose is best.”

But what is it about dahlias that has attracted so many fans and admirers? In our effort to describe the joys of dahlia gardening, members of Central States Dahlia Society were recently asked why they are so enthusiastic about these dramatic floral divas, which will be on display September 9-10 at the Chicago Botanic Garden. Here’s what we found.

Dahlia 'Hollywood Spiderwoman'

Dahlia ‘Hollywood Spiderwoman’

Dahlia 'Hissy Fitz'

Dahlia ‘Hissy Fitz’

Dahlia 'Harvey Koop'

Dahlia ‘Harvey Koop’

Size does matter.  Of the 70,000 varieties developed, dahlia blooms range in size from the miniatures, just 12 inches tall with 2-inch blooms, to the huge “dinnerplates,” the dense, glossy-leaved plants that grow up to 6 feet tall and bloom with flowers 10 to 12 inches in diameter.  As one member said:  “I love giant flowers! The ‘dinnerplates’ are showstoppers!” Another praised the benefits of smaller varieties, which can be used in containers when space is limited. “Sometimes, you don’t realize they are all part of the same family,” she said.

Miniature dahlias sport 2-inch blooms

Miniature dahlias sport 2-inch blooms.

A "dinner plate" dahlia

A “dinnerplate” dahlia…

A "dinner plate" dahlia

…can measure up to a foot across!

They come in a range of colors. Color and beauty ranked high in members’ reviews. The wide range color range means dahlias will complement any gardening color scheme and co-star with both annuals and perennials in a garden. Recognized by one member as “The Las Vegas of flowers,” dahlias range from the darkest red or purple to many shades of pink, orange, yellow, and white. There are also blends, variegated, and bi-colored cultivars. The only color missing from this palette is blue. Many admired the range of color in the foliage as well. 

Informal dahlia arrangement

Informal dahlia arrangement

Informal dahlia arrangement

Informal dahlia arrangement

Informal dahlia arrangement

Informal dahlia arrangement

Formal dahlia arrangment

Formal dahlia arrangement

These prolific bloomers offer a lot of choices. Form and size are categorized by the American Dahlia Society (www.dahlia.org) into 21 classifications, and members are drawn to the diversity, describing the blooms as “gigantic,” “elegant,” and “perfection.” The plants provide continuous blooms from July to frost. As a cut flower, dahlias are superstars. The more you cut them, the more prolific they become.

Formal decorative form dahlia

Formal decorative form dahlia

Pompon form dahlias

Pompon form dahlias

Incurved cactus dahlia form

Incurved cactus dahlia form

Code Description
AN Anemone-flowered
BA Ball
Straight Cactus
CO Collarette
FD Formal Decorative
IC Incurved Cactus
ID Informal Decorative
LC Laciniated
MB Miniature Ball
MS Mignon Single
Novelty
NO Novelty Open
NX Novelty Fully Double
Orchid-flowering 
OT  Orchette 
Pompon
PE Peony-flowering
Single
SC Semi-Cactus
ST Stellar
WL Water Lily 

Copyright ©1995-present, American Dahlia Society, all rights reserved.

Other members cited the unique features of dahlias. There are 1,500-plus named varieties, with names like Prince Charming, Blondee, Cutie Patootie, and Diva. The availability of low-growing varieties makes them perfect for containers. While dahlias receive a standing ovation for their color and form, they have no scent, making them an ideal bloom for people with allergies.

Devoted followers highlighted ease of growing as an attribute. Tubers can be saved and propagated from year to year, making them very efficient.

Then there is the “wow” factor. Our members found a special place in their hearts for these plants, like old friends, that deliver on their promise. Whether it is the opportunity to share the beauty and harvest of the garden with family, neighbors and friends, the occasion to find personal happiness or endure sorrow, or the chance to compete with other gardeners for the perfect bloom, dahlias provide a formidable scene. Dahlias offer something for everyone. In the words of the Bard, “One touch of nature makes the whole world kin.”

P.S.  Will, what were you thinking? The rose has thorns! Pick dahlias!

Dahlia arrangement at the Central States Dahlia Society Show

Join us September 9-10, 2017, for the 51st Central States Dahlia Society Show.

ILLUSTRATION: dahlia artWe hope you will join us at the 51st National Dahlia Show hosted by the Central States Dahlia Society at the Chicago Botanic Garden on September 9-10, 2017. For additional information on the Central States Dahlia Society or the 2017 National Dahlia Show, visit centralstatesdahliasociety.com/2017-national-show.

 

By Andrea Basalay, with thanks to the CSDS members for sharing their thoughts and experiences.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

A gall, tumor, or burl is an abnormal growth on the leaves, stems, roots, buds, twigs, or crown of a plant. In most cases, the gall is unsightly but not damaging. In small plants, the vascular flow of water and food can be restricted, causing poor growth and making the plant more susceptible to other stresses. A large tree can be weakened by an infection over many years. Nematodes, mites, and insects cause 95 percent of galls. Bacteria and fungi cause the remaining five percent. In most cases, the gall-making organism can be identified by observing the structure of the gall and the species of the host plant.

Galls on a Flower

Galls on Rudbeckia laciniata ‘Herbstsonne’

Fungal galls are spread by ascospores in wind and water and can be found on many common trees including oak, maple, and common privet. Black knot affects many species of the genus Prunus—particularly cherries and plums.

Crown gall is a common problem caused by bacteria. The disease is spread by infested soil, transplants, or contaminated tools. The bacteria enters the plant through wounds caused by cultivation, pruning, or insects. Easy prevention methods are to plant only healthy stock (no suspicious bumps), to clean pruners between use on each plant with alcohol or a 10 percent bleach/water solution, and to take care not to injure plant stems. The bacteria stays active in the soil even after removal of infected plants, so place new, healthy stock elsewhere. Remove and destroy all infected plants. Galls caused by bacterial and fungus are more prevalent during wet years.

A gall can form in response to toxins injected during insect feeding or egg laying, or around a feeding larva. The hackberry leaf gall is caused by psyllids, which are tiny winged insects. Galls formed by insects usually do not affect the overall health of the tree unless they experience early defoliation over the course of many years. Parasites are an important control of this pest. Many oak galls are caused by gall flies and generally are not detrimental. A severe twig infection can, however, cause severe injury and even death. Spruce galls are often caused by several species of an aphid-like insect. If only a few galls are present, they can be cut off and destroyed before the insects emerge in midsummer.

Galls on a Flower
Galls on a Flower

 

Leaf galls on maple trees form because of feeding mites. Eriophyid mites produce a gall that resembles a felt patch and may occur on the upper or lower side of the leaf. The overall health of the tree should not be seriously affected.

Nematode feeding activity can injure roots and allow gall-forming bacteria into the plant. Nematodes can also form galls on carrots, camellia, fig, gardenia, okra, potato, roses, sweet potato, and tomato. Plants can be stunted, yellow, and wilted due to restrictions on the uptake of water and nutrients. Individual nematodes are invisible to the naked eye, but egg masses can be seen as pearly objects.  Roots can appear scabby, pimpled, rough, and have knots. Two important prevention methods are to rotate with nematode-resistant crops and to maintain rich organic soil.

Please contact Plant Information Service at (847) 835-0972 or at plantinfo@chicagobotanic.org for additional information.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org