Archives For Programs and Events

These posts offer previews or behind-the-scenes information on some of the Garden’s special events. Learn what it takes to put together these exquisite events and then come see them in person!

Butterflies & Blooms has moved to the Regenstein Learning Campus and I have good feeling it’s going to be the best season yet, because we currently have a plethora of butterfly species native to Brazil. The Chicago Botanic Garden is celebrating Brazil in the Garden this summer, and Butterflies & Blooms is part of the celebration. 

Since we first opened Butterflies & Bloomswe have sought to display the most beautiful butterflies in the world, both exotic and domestic. Naturally, the Amazon rainforest is one of the most biodiverse regions on the planet. A whopping 60 percent of this precious treasure lies within Brazil. Brazil is home to thousands of butterfly and moth species (in comparison, all of Europe has about 300 species), and scientists have only recorded a fraction of the Lepidoptera species of Brazil and the greater Amazon rainforest.

You can find dozens of butterflies native to Brazil and neighboring countries in the exhibit on any given day. Currently, we have beauties such as the giant owl butterfly (Caligo memnon) and its close relative, the forest mort bleu (Caligo eurilochus). These two butterflies are often confused with moths because of their earth-toned camouflage and also because they are usually found resting on a shady tree branch during the heat of the day.

Large tiger butterfly (Lycorea cleobaea)

The large tiger butterfly (Lycorea cleobaea) thrives in the tropical rainforests of Brazil; find it here in Butterflies & Blooms. Photo ©Anne Belmont.

Blue morpho (Morpho peleides)

One of our most popular butterflies, the blue morpho (Morpho peleides) is another Brazilian native. Photo ©Anne Belmont.

Another pair of Brazilian butterflies that grace the exhibit are the grey cracker (Hamadryas feronia) and the starry cracker (Hamadryas laodamia), They are aptly named, since they can clap their wings while flying in order to make a percussive cracking sound as a means of communication. They use this talent when predators approach, to declare territory, and, of course, for mating. While the grey cracker blends into its environment with its intricate, drab coloration, the starry cracker is very showy, coated with brilliant blue specks on a dark blue field. Looking at it can feel like looking up into a starry night.

At Butterflies & Blooms, you can always find at least a few different species of longwing butterflies (Heliconius). Longwing butterflies have been extensively studied since Victorian times, because they display numerous forms of mimicry. In the late nineteenth century, the naturalist Henry Walter Bates traveled to Brazil and studied these butterflies. He noticed that Heliconius erato would mimic the coloration of other Heliconians, because they were poisonous. This particular form of mimicry was coined  “Batesian mimicry” after the naturalist. When Bates returned from Brazil, he used his findings to help support Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.

Postman butterfly (Heliconius erato)

One of the longwing butterflies common to Brazil is the postman butterfly (Heliconius erato). Photo ©Anne Belmont

Another naturalist by the name of Fritz Müller observed what became known as “Müllerian mimicry”—also while studying longwings in Brazil. In this case, he noted that multiple species of poisonous butterflies will adopt the same coloration, making it easier for them to be recognized as poisonous would-be predators. Müller’s studies also led him to support Darwin’s theory of evolution.

The Amazon rainforest continues to be a scientific cornucopia to this day. The next time you visit Butterflies & Blooms, check out the owls, crackers, and longwings, and remember that they all represent the natural wonders of the Amazon rainforest and Brazil. Then take a walk through the Garden to discover more of the vibrant plants and colors of Brazil.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

While we are in the midst of the exquisite Orchid Show, the Garden is already planning a summer of Brazil in the Garden, highlighting the influence of Brazil on gardens, arts and culture, and conservation. This seems like a great opportunity to publicize some Brazilian orchids that have been among my favorites all the years I have grown orchids at home.

PHOTO: Cattleya coccinea and hybrids from the Wisconsin Orchid Society Show on February 26, 2017.

Cattleya orchid (Cattleya coccinea) and hybrids from the Wisconsin Orchid Society Show on February 26, 2017—my plants!

First, a few facts.

Brazil has one of the highest diversities of orchid species of any country in the world, with more than 2,500 species reported, and no doubt many more undescribed species from the botanically unexplored interior. If you enjoy orchids at all, you have already seen Brazilian orchid species or the hybrids derived from them. Just a few of the well-known orchids that are indigenous to Brazil are many of the Cattleya species as well as many of the former Sophronitis and Laelia species now included in Cattleya; also species from Epidendrum, Maxillaria, Miltonia, Oncidium, Phragmipedium, Stanhopea, and others. The national flower of Brazil—Cattleya purpurata (formerly Laelia purpurata)—is also an orchid.

The native orchids of Brazil are often epiphytes growing on trees and shrubs, but can also be terrestrial, and even lithophytes (growing on rocks). They can be found from hot and humid lowland tropical areas, to seasonally dry and cooler interior regions, to high elevations in cloud forests. The care of Brazilian orchids and their hybrids in cultivation is as varied as the number of species and their habitats, but where they naturally occur provides clues for how to grow them in cultivation. Luckily, the vast orchid literature available often includes information on their culture. 

Which brings us to Cattleya coccinea, the compact—yet brilliant—jewel of my orchid collection.

Cattleya coccinea

PHOTO: Cattleya coccinea

Cattleya coccinea

Formerly recognized and still more commonly referred to as Sophronitis coccinea, C. coccinea is one of perhaps six to nine species and as many varietal color forms included in the former genus Sophronitis. While all the species are delightful in their own right, C. coccinea is the best known. It has long been grown, line-bred (crossed within the species) to improve it, converted to tetraploids (double the typical number of chromosomes) to produce plants with even larger flowers, and especially used in breeding to impart large bold flowers on compact plants. Literally thousands of orchid hybrids have C. coccinea lurking in their background. But I prefer the species or hybrids that are at least 25 to 50 percent C. coccinea, and so still bear a strong resemblance to the species.

Cattleya coccinea is a diminutive grower, with cylindrical pseudobulbs less than 1 inch tall, each topped by a solitary leaf all of 2 to 3 inches in height. A clue you are giving your C. coccinea sufficient light is when each leaf has a red stripe on top of the mid-vein. Under my growing conditions, C. coccinea can produce flowers any time from November to May, and will often bloom two or three times in succession. One to two flowers are produced per new pseudobulb. The flowers can be from 1 to nearly 3 inches wide in the best forms, dwarfing the plant. Flowers are a brilliant red to orange-red with some yellow and/or orange in the small lip. Look for forms with flat flowers and broad overlapping petals. They are always a draw in bloom. Related species are less frequently encountered. Cattleya cernua (Sophronitis cernua) has much smaller flowers but produces more per growth, is very vigorous, and tolerates warmer summer temperatures. There are yellow-flowered versions of both C. coccinea and C. cernua, but these are very hard to find and are priced accordingly. Cattleya wittigiana is similar to C. coccinea but with attractive rosy-pink flowers instead. It has been put to good use in breeding. Confusingly, C. wittigiana is also known as C. rosea, Sophronitis wittigiana, and Sophrontis rosea. The other species are rarely seen.

PHOTO: Cattleya-dichroma-(formerly-Sophronitis-bicolor)

Cattleya dichroma (formerly Sophronitis bicolor)

Tips on cultivating Cattleya coccinea

Culture of Cattleya orchids can be demanding. In its relatively high-elevation native habitats in Brazil, C. coccinea is an epiphyte on trees and shrubs, receiving strong light to full sun, high humidity, strong air movement, and cool temperatures. Try to duplicate these conditions in cultivation. I grow mine mostly in New Zealand sphagnum moss in small clay pots, replacing the moss every winter. They can also be mounted on small pieces of cork bark with a bit of sphagnum moss to help retain moisture. Do not repot them in the summer. Cool temperatures are optimal, with nights as low as 45 degrees Fahrenheit (I aim for around 52-degree nights) and day temperatures no higher than 86 degrees in the summer. Constant high relative humidity and excellent air movement are essential. Never allow the roots to dry out for too many days. These are also sensitive to hard water. If you can, water with rainwater if your water quality is suspect. I fertilize mine weekly when in growth with a variety of fertilizers, alternating 15-5-15 Cal Mag with an occasional 30-10-10 acid feed. (Other growers rarely fertilize at all. It is a matter of personal preference and cultural conditions.)

The former Sophronitis species are not for beginning orchid growers. But with attention to their cultural preferences, they can thrive in the hands of experienced orchid growers. I adore them for their interesting foliage, dwarf habits, and their vibrant and glowing flowers that dwarf the plants. Look for their easier-to-grow hybrids as well.

PHOTO: Cattleya Wild Fire, a hybrid of Cattleya coccinea and Cattleya wittigiana.

Cattleya ‘Wild Fire’, a hybrid of Cattleya coccinea and Cattleya wittigiana


The Chicago Botanic Garden does not have any of the former Sophronitis species in its collections (I’ll work on that), but there is a good chance that at least some of the species, or hybrids from them, will be on display at the Illinois Orchid Society Spring Show, held March 11 and 12 here at the Garden. The IOS show, which is layered on top of the Garden’s Orchid Show, will include numerous exhibits, judging of the best plants, multiple vendors with plants and growing supplies for sale, an information desk, and a repotting station. Also, look for Brazil in the Garden in our many gardens and events this summer.

Be sure to visit!


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Each year’s Orchid Show at the Chicago Botanic Garden features something new and dynamic—and each year, the Lenhardt Library’s Orchid Show exhibition showcases something rare and dynamic.

Free Talk on Sunday, February 26, at 2 p.m.

This year’s exhibition, Orchidpalooza: Illustrated Orchid Varieties, features five unsigned, untitled, and unnumbered artist proofs that are attributed to English landscape artist Henry Moon (1857-1905). The proofs were most likely intended for a third series of a collection called Reichenbachia: Orchids Illustrated and Described, commissioned by Frederick Sander (1847-1920).  Moon was Sander’s son-in-law and was responsible for the 192 chromolithographs published in the monumental two-volume work. This work is considered Sander’s homage to Heinrich Gustav Reichenbach (1824-90), the “Orchid King” who succeeded John Lindley (1799-1865), the “Father of Orchidology,” as the leading orchid authority of the late 1800s.

ILLUSTRATION: Cattleya Skinneri var. alba Rchb. f. and Cattleya Skinneri Batem

Cattleya skinneri var. alba Rchb. f. and Cattleya skinneri Batem

ILLUSTRATION: Cattleya mossiae and Cattleya mossiae var. Wagnerii

Cattleya mossiae (white) and Cattleya mossiae var. Wagnerii (purple)

ILLUSTRATION: Angraecum eburneum var. superbum

Angraecum eburneum var. superbum

ILLUSTRATION: Habenaria carnea N.E. Br.

Habenaria carnea N.E. Br.

See Orchidpalooza: Illustrated Orchid Varieties through March 26, 2017

Never before exhibited in the Lenhardt Library, the five botanically accurate orchid chromolithographs include color bars from eight to twelve colors, registration marks, and scientific names penciled in the margins or on the verso.

Want to see more? With grant funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, these prints have been conserved and digitized and are freely accessible at the Biodiversity Heritage Library: www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/123710#/summary

See the Orchid Show through March 26. Buy tickets here.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Any views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this blog do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment for the Humanities.

Designing the 2017 Orchid Show

Renee T. —  February 9, 2017 — 5 Comments

Take a sneak peek behind-the-scenes at the Orchid Show, the Chicago Botanic Garden’s biggest flower show of the year. Buy tickets here.

PHOTO: Phalaenopsis Sogo Yukidan 'V3'

Phalaenopsis Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’

We’ve rolled out the tall ladders, prepped hanging baskets with Spanish moss, and worked hard to keep 10,000 warmth-loving tropical orchids happy (including an orchid that is rarely shown in the United States, Phalaenopsis Sogo Yukidian ‘V3’; be sure to check out the unusual number of big blooms on each spike).

It’s all hands on deck for the Show, which runs February 11 to March 26, following the Members’ Preview night on Friday, February 10. Volunteers across the Garden and beyond have pitched in to help from departments including Education, Model Railroad, and Horticultural Therapy Services, along with our Woman’s Board.

Volunteers from all departments unpack orchids for the Orchid Show 2017.

Volunteers from different departments unpack orchids for the Orchid Show 2017.

It all starts with ideas from our creative team, which starts brainstorming shortly after the end of the previous year’s Orchid Show. 

PHOTO: Sketch of the Orchid Show designs for 2017.

Last June, horticulturist Brian Barker had an idea that looked like this.

The Orchid Show displays in the Tropical Greenhouse.

Now it looks like this: an arch of Vanda and Oncidium orchids between the palms.

Sketch of planter layout for the Orchid Show at the Chicago Botanic Garden.

Three big planters are nestled amid the existing greenhouse plantings.

Manzanita branches cover the framework of the planters for the Chicago Botanic Garden's Orchid Show.

Manzanita branches cover the framework of the planters; orchids will fill the top and stem of the structures.

Setting up the structure for the orchid "wind chime"

Setting up the framework

In the completed archway, supporting vines are woven together and attached to a hidden framework. Notice the dangling aerial roots from orchids that are epiphytes—plants that grow on trees, with above-ground rather than in-ground roots.

Sometimes, things don’t always go as planned. Work on the 13-foot high orchid “wind chime” got delayed while we waited and waited for a delivery of bamboo supports from Colombia… Luckily, the shipment arrived before the Show.

When you walk into Nichols Hall, don’t forget to look for the dozens of blooms overhead.

The finished orchid "wind chime" in Nichols Hall

The finished “chime” looks deceptively simple…

This year’s theme is Orchids in Vogue, a playful look at the influence of orchids in popular culture, including fashion. Last summer, senior horticulturist Salina Wunderle came up with an idea for an orchid “dress.” Now we have three design teams working on orchid dresses; come see the final result.

Materials sketch by horticulturist Salina Wunderle for one of this year's highlights: 3 orchid gowns.

This materials sketch by horticulturist Salina Wunderle details one of this year’s highlights: orchid “dresses.”

Salina Wunderle's dress sketch shows how her material choices will be layered to create the final look.

Salina’s dress sketch shows how her material choices will be layered to create the final look. The availability and maintenance of the plants might mean some changes in the final design.

Under construction, this is one of 3 gowns made of orchids and other plants to be displayed at The Orchid Show this year.

We did some trial runs, testing materials to help determine weight and structure, and making sure they’ll stay fresh for the run of the Show.

PHOTO: Cymbidium Sarah Jean 'Peach'

Cymbidium Sarah Jean ‘Peach’

Don’t miss our exclusive Members’ Preview night, Friday, February 10. Visit the Orchid Show February 11 to March 26, 2017. 

…and don’t forget to tag us in your selfies: #CBGOrchidShow


Photos by Maria Rebelo and Robin Carlson.
©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Think you can tell the difference between an orchid and a praying mantis? Or an orchid and a sugar flower?

See for yourself, and get ready to view 10,000 orchids in bloom at the Chicago Botanic Garden’s Orchid Show, February 11 to March 26. This year’s theme, Orchids in Vogue, looks at the influence of orchids in popular culture.

Here are six fun facts on Orchidaceae—one of the largest, most diverse, and most beloved of all plant families.

A beautiful (and edible) orchid adorns this cocktail from Chef Daniel Boulud.

A beautiful (and edible) orchid in an ice sphere adorns this cocktail from chef Daniel Boulud. Photo via marthastewart.com

Why, yes, that’s an orchid in my cocktail

Noted French chef Daniel Boulud paired with a mixologist to come up with a white cosmopolitan recipe that calls for elderflower liqueur and a frozen orchid sphere.

The "aromatic" Platanthera_obtusata, photographed by Jason Hollinger

The “aromatic” Platanthera obtusata, by Jason Hollinger [CC BY 2.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons

File this under “orchids are clever”

Researchers have discovered that a bog orchid (Platanthera obtusata) lures its pollinator—tiger mosquitoes—by giving off a smell similar to human body odor.

Sugar Cymbidium orchid by Robert Haynes. Photo ©Tony Harris

Sugar Cymbidium orchid by Robert Haynes. Photo ©Tony Harris

Have your orchid and eat it, too

London-based sugar artist Robert Haynes specializes in creating, and teaching others how to make, “botanically correct sugar flowers.”

Hymenopus coronatus orchid mantis.

The remarkably floral orchid mantis (Hymenopus coronatus) fools many a pollinator. Photo by Frupus [CC 2.0]

Bee careful…

Entomologists are studying the evolution of a praying mantis that looks like an orchid. The female Malaysian orchid mantis (Hymenopus coronatus) attracts orchid pollinators such as bees—and then eats them. 

Get an orchid in your name.

Get a really special orchid for a loved one…

(Your name here) orchid

A Virginia orchid grower will register a new orchid hybrid in your name with the Royal Horticultural Society (the official international register) for $1,500.

Some greenhouses will babysit your orchids for you.

Out-of-sight, out-of-mind until bloom time

Orchid boarding school

Some nurseries will care for your orchids if you’re busy or on vacation, or simply prefer to have experts raise them until the plants are ready to bloom. “As your orchid begins to send up a bloom spike, it is tenderly staked and tied, ready to return to you as it comes into bloom,” says Hamilton Orchids & Plantscapes in Sonoma, California.

 

Buy your Orchid Show tickets in advance for faster entry. Planning a date night? Save more than 30 percent on a special offer for two.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org