Archives For Programs and Events

These posts offer previews or behind-the-scenes information on some of the Garden’s special events. Learn what it takes to put together these exquisite events and then come see them in person!

We love nature here at the Chicago Botanic Garden, so we looked to the natural world for inspiration on how to enjoy the eclipse—here at the Garden, or in your own backyard.

Practice safe viewing at the Garden with eclipse glasses from the Adler Planetarium.

Practice safe viewing at the Garden with eclipse glasses from the Adler Planetarium. Distribution of glasses begins at 10 a.m. Monday, August 21 on the Esplanade.

On Monday, August 21, people across the United States will be able to witness a rare event: the first total solar eclipse to cross over the country from coast to coast in nearly a century.

The path of totality—meaning the area of the United States that will see the sun completely blocked by the moon—passes across southern Illinois. In the Chicago area, we will experience roughly 86 percent coverage around 1:19 p.m. This is the closest the Chicago area has been to a total solar eclipse in 92 years.

 

1. Make a pinhole projector—using leaves.

Rule number one with eclipses—and with the sun every day, actually—is don’t look directly at it with the naked eye. A fun way to indirectly “see” the eclipse is with a pinhole projector, and one of the best natural projectors is a leaf. Leaves often have holes that can act as natural projectors.

During the eclipse, turn your back to the sun and hold the leaf above a neutral colored background, ideally several feet or more away. A white sheet of paper will do. You’ll see a crescent-shaped shadow that changes as the eclipse progresses.

Via Rice Space Institute, a fun way to commemorate an eclipse: make a pinhole sign and photograph its shadow.

Via Rice Space Institute, a fun way to commemorate an eclipse: make a pinhole sign and photograph its shadow.

The easiest pinhole projector you can make is with your hands. Stretch out and overlap your fingers to create a grid. Look down and you’ll see mini eclipses projected through the spaces between your fingers.

Eclipse shadows seen through crossed fingers of kids.

Viewing with children? Use what you’ve got to make your own shadow art: tiny hands are perfect. Photo via blogger Linda Shore

Other ideas: Use everyday objects that already have holes—like colanders or crackers, for example—or by punching a hole in a piece of cardboard or other sturdy material. If you want a more patriotic experience, NASA has 2D/3D printable pinhole projectors in the shape of the United States and each state.


2. Follow the shadows of the trees.

Find a shady spot and watch as the eclipse shadows change over the course of the event. Instead of the one shadow that a standard pinhole projector creates, you can view hundreds by standing under a decently sized oak or maple.

Instead of the shadows of leaves, thousands of sun crescents: the light cast through the gaps in moving leaves is only a sliver of the sun, and it shows.

Instead of the shadows of leaves, thousands of sun crescents: the light cast through the gaps in moving leaves is only a sliver of the sun, and it shows. Photo by David Prasad from Fresno, CA., United States [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons, taken during the 2012 annular solar eclipse seen on the west coast of the United States.

Shadows of leaves on the ground during a partial solar eclipse look like a host of small, overlapping crescent moons.

Shadows of leaves on the ground during a partial solar eclipse look like a host of small, overlapping crescent moons. Photo by பரிதிமதி (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Another cool effect created by the eclipse is shadows that look sharper and appear to move (albeit very slowly) as the eclipse goes on. Boyce Tankersley, the Garden’s director of living plant documentation, was in St. Louis during the annular solar eclipse that passed over the United States in 1994, and witnessed this phenomenon while working at the botanical garden there. Unlike the annular 1994 eclipse, where a ring of the sun appears around the edge of the moon, the total eclipse this year will completely block the sun’s light in the path of totality (near Carbondale, Illinois, in our region). That’s because during a total eclipse, the distances between the moon, sun, and earth allows the moon to completely cover the sun; during an annular eclipse, it does not.

Rangers in Grand Canyon National Park use eclipse filters on a pair of binoculars during an annular eclipse viewing in 2012.

Rangers in Grand Canyon National Park use pair of filtered binoculars during an annular eclipse viewing in 2012. Note the crisp shadows at near-peak eclipse, as well as the crisp outline of the crescent sun.
[CC BY 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

At peak viewing time, from roughly 12:45 to 2 p.m., we’ll see a skinny crescent of light peeking out from behind the moon, almost like it’s taking a bite out of the sun. Though it’s only a sliver, it’s still strong enough to mess with the way shadows appear to the naked eye. This will make for some amazing patterns and changing shapes under the Garden’s trees. If you want to experience the eclipse this way, Tankersley recommends heading to the Waterfall Garden, English Oak Meadow, or English Walled Garden. Even the Garden’s parking lots have big, leafy trees that would work. If you prefer seclusion, the west service road, stretching from the Regenstein Learning Campus to the Graham Bulb Garden, has ginkgo, redbud, and buckeye, to name a few trees in that area with interesting leaves. Use the Garden’s plant finder or download our GardenGuide app to seek out a spot to see the eclipse by your favorite kind of tree.


3. Come to the Garden’s Eclipse Event

The Garden has partnered with the Adler Planetarium to host a solar eclipse viewing event. Free special viewing glasses—while supplies last—will be available so visitors can safely view the eclipse directly. We’ll also have Family Drop-In activities related to the eclipse and a scale model of the moon, sun, and earth stretching across the Esplanade, not far from the Visitor Center.

Crescent-shaped shadows of an eclipse seen through a colander.

Colanders, strainers, slotted spoons, and crackers—use household objects for your own eclipse experiments. Photo via Lightscapes blog.

The Esplanade is going to be a hub of activity, but the Garden has a number of other open spaces for great viewing. Grab your eclipse glasses and head to Dixon Prairie, on the south end of the Garden. When you need a break from staring at the sky, you’ll also see blooming blazing star, wild bergamot, prairie dock, and ironweed. If you’re lucky, you may also spot a hummingbird or monarch butterfly. The prairie is right off the section of the North Branch Trail that winds through the eastern part of the Garden, so it’s easily accessible if you bike here from the south.

Not as off the beaten path, but usually a sure bet for some private space, is Evening Island. It’s home to the Theodore C. Butz Memorial Carillon and features different landscapes on five acres. Head to the lawn overlooking the Great Basin for a clear view of the sky, as well as sweeping, photo-ready vistas. If you’re with a small group, gather in the council ring, inspired by the work of famed garden designer Jens Jensen.


If you miss this year’s total solar eclipse you won’t have to wait too long for the next one. There will be another in seven years, with the Chicago area closer to the path of totality and expected to see roughly 93 percent coverage. Practice your skills this year and you’ll be proficient in eclipse observation by 2024.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

How to Grow More Amazing Dahlias Than Your Neighbors

A Dahlia Primer: From Planting to Blooming

Guest Blogger —  August 4, 2017 — 1 Comment

Get ready for an explosive burst of color September 9-10 at the annual American Dahlia Society National Show at the Chicago Botanic Garden. More than 2,000 flowers in the dahlia family will be on display in a wide variety of colors, sizes, and forms. 

Dahlias are indigenous to Mexico, where they were grown by the Aztecs, who used the tubers as one of their staple foods. The plants were brought to Spain and eventually spread throughout Europe, as people appreciated the beauty of the flowers themselves. Through hybridization, there now are more than 70,000 varieties of dahlia, about 1,500 of which are popularly grown.

Here are some tips for growing these beautiful plants in the garden. 

Dahlia bouquet from the American Dahlia Society National Show

ILLUSTRATION: dahlia artOn September 9 and 10, the Central States Dahlia Society and the Chicago Botanic Garden present the 51st annual American Dahlia Society National Show. For detailed information on the show and the Central States Dahlia Society, please visit centralstatesdahliasociety.com


Selecting a site

Pick a sunny spot where, optimally, the plants will receive at least six hours of sunlight. Since dahlias do not like to get their “feet” wet, the area should not accumulate water and should drain well. If the soil is clay-like, it should be amended with leaf mulch, compost, or peat moss. Since dahlias should be planted about 18 inches apart, it is easy to determine the number of plants the area will accommodate.

Planting

You can plant your dahlias as soon as the danger of frost has past, and the soil temperature remains above 55 degrees Fahrenheit. In Chicago, this typically means about the middle of May. However, some growers wait until Memorial Day just to be sure. The delay does not seem to appreciably affect when the first blooms appear. You can start with either potted plants or tubers that have been over-wintered from last year’s crop.

If using potted plants that have already developed a root system, place the plants in the ground so that the top of the potting medium is level with the ground. Many growers will add a slow-release fertilizer (e.g., Osmocote) and/or composted manure to the bottom of the hole. Water the plants once they have been put in the ground, and water as needed to keep the soil moist (about one inch per week).

Planted dahlia tuber

Planted dahlia tuber

A new dahlia plant

A new dahlia plant

When starting with tubers, dig a shallow hole (about 6 inches deep), add material as described above, and place the tuber on its side. Loosely cover the tuber—but do not bury it—with soil. Once the tuber has sprouted and the sprout has reached the level of the soil, the hole should be back-filled. The tubers should not be watered until they have sent out a sprout that reaches above ground level. A word of caution: Tuber sprouts can be quite delicate. It is a good idea to use a short, temporary support until the plant becomes established. You can start with tubers planted directly in the soil or start the tubers indoors in pots to get an early start. If starting inside, the tender plants should be “hardened” off prior to planting in the garden.

Since dahlias will often grow to five feet or more in height, they need to be staked. The stake should be placed in the ground as soon as the plant, or tuber, is in place. Put the supporting stake within a couple of inches of the plant and avoid damaging the tuber. Plastic stakes tend to bend and break. Many growers use ¼- to ½-inch rebar that can be bought from big-box stores or building supply centers. Tomato cages also provide good support.

New dahlia plant staked, tied, and identified

New dahlia plant staked, tied, and identified

Depending on the height of the plant, you should loosely tie it to the supporting stake. The final step in the planting process is to write the name of the variety on a plastic tag. The tag should be stuck in the ground or attached to the support system.

Dahlia bed ready for the growing season

Dahlia bed ready for the growing season

The first several weeks

As the plant continues to grow, additional ties will have to be placed at about 12-inch intervals. After the plant produces three or four sets of leaves and is about 18 inches tall, the plant should be “topped.”  This means that the terminal bud, at the top of the main stem, must be removed. This will be done only once. This process forces that plant to develop lateral stems, which results in more flowers. 

A "topped" dahlia with terminal bud removed, and laterals forming

A “topped” dahlia with terminal bud removed, and laterals forming

Water as needed to keep the soil moist. During this early phase, many growers will use a nitrogen fertilizer to promote leaf growth and stimulate the plant’s development.

Once buds appear

Depending on the weather and maturity of the starting stock, after about six to eight weeks the first buds should appear. These will develop in groups of three. Two of these should be removed. This process, called “disbudding,” will result in larger blooms. The first blooms tend to be the largest ones that the plant will produce. Growers who plan to compete in shows will try to time these first blooms so they appear just before the show.

A dahlia plant ready for "disbudding"

A dahlia plant ready for “disbudding”

During this phase, water the plant as needed. Watering should be done at the base of the plant. Water on the leaves may cause disease, and water on the blooms may cause them to become top-heavy and droop, or even break. Fertilizing during this phase should consist of potassium and phosphorus to encourage root and bloom development. Do not “over-feed’ the dahlias. Fertilizing about every three to four weeks is the generally recommended practice.   

If the plant becomes too full, you should remove a lateral stem or two. This process, called “disbranching,” should be done as close to the main stem as is possible. All plant grooming should be done in the early morning.  Ideally, you should sterilize the cutting tool as you move between plants to avoid the possible transfer of any disease for one plant to the next.

During the growing season, be aware of the impact of pests and plant disease. Snails and slugs may attack the newly planted dahlias. Spider mites are the most common pest. If they attack, the leaves will shrivel and yellow spots will appear. Many growers will preventatively spray once the hot weather arrives to avoid these pests, as remediation is difficult.

A garden full of dahlias

The fruits of your labor

Cutting the blooms

It is best to cut the blooms in the morning using a sharp instrument to make a clean cut. The stem can then be slit along its length to increase water absorption. Freshly cut dahlias will last in the house for one week or longer. 

 

By George Koons, Central States Dahlia Society


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Don’t trust your eyes—that leaf is actually a butterfly

The orange dead leaf (Kallima inachus)

Patrick Sbordone —  July 20, 2017 — 2 Comments

As the season has been progressing at Butterflies & Blooms at the Chicago Botanic Garden, we have been lucky enough to receive a very special butterfly species and a definite crowd-pleaser: the orange dead leaf (Kallima inachus)

If we didn’t point out this character to guests, no one would ever suspect that they were looking at a butterfly.

I like to describe the orange dead leaf butterfly as being able to mimic a dead leaf better than an actual dead leaf can. When it closes its wings, the butterfly has a perfectly ovate silhouette, complete with both a pointed leaf apex at the front tip and a petiole, or the stalk that attaches leaf to stem, on the hindside. The wing is a drab brown, with leaf vein arrangement very similar to that of a flowering dogwood. The orange dead leaf butterfly is at home in broadleaf forests of India, where it blends in with dead foliage during the dry season, going unnoticed by all but the sharpest predators. Here at Butterflies & Blooms, this butterfly seems to seek out dead, brown leaves in the tree canopies and uses them as a place to blend in. I always get a kick out of showing people that one of those dead leaves is not what it seems.

Kallima inachus at rest on a branch

Kallima inachus at rest on a branch

Kallima inachus with its wings open

Kallima inachus with its wings open

The butterfly has another surprise for visitors: It has incredibly vivid coloration on the dorsal side of its wings. When the orange dead leaf opens its wings to sun itself or take flight, it shows off its navy blue iridescent wings, with a bright orange stripe on each of the forewings.

We have several other butterfly species that also use one side of their wings to resemble dead foliage, including the autumn leaf (Doleschallia bisaltide) and the great orange tip (Hebomoia glaucippe). However, these species have not mastered the art of camouflage quite like Kallima inachus. Come over to Butterflies & Blooms to check out this fascinating butterfly.


Atlas moth (Attacus atlas)

Atlas moth (Attacus atlas)

While you are here, take a look at the serviceberry tree just to the left of the pupae chamber. We have an unprecedented seven giant atlas moths perched on the tree branches like Christmas tree ornaments. Also, don’t miss all of the blooms: The recent rainy weather has undoubtedly helped the Butterflies & Blooms garden become more floriferous.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

USO families and veterans were welcomed on June 25 to a special day at the Chicago Botanic Garden. A gift from the Annie and Gregory K. Jones family provided the families and veterans with a day of fun experiences: tram tours, admission to the Model Railroad Garden: Landmarks of America and Butterflies & Blooms exhibits, lunch, exploration at the Kleinman Family Cove, nature play at the Regenstein Learning Campus, and creating a mini terrarium in the Buehler Enabling Garden. 

The Garden’s horticultural therapy department drew on their experiences working with veterans and their families as they planned a plant-based activity that would celebrate the strengths of these folks. Succulent plants were a natural choice. Add colored aquarium gravel and a portable container, and you’ve got a beautiful tribute to the pride of being a member of a military family. So, here is a fun way to consider this event:

How is a plant like a member of a military family?

Succulent plants

Succulent plant: By deftly storing water, succulent plants live just fine under extremely hot and dry conditions.

Military family holding small terrariums made at the Garden.

Military spouse: By using resources wisely, a military spouse stretches money, time, and love to make sure the whole family is taken care of, wherever they may be.

Succulent plant

Succulent plant: Develops a tough exterior to endure harsh conditions.

Military family eating lunch at the Garden's USO Military Appreciation Day.

Military parent: Develops coping skills and the ability to play both mom and dad roles to endure long deployments.

Succulent plants

Succulent plants: So many colors, leaf shapes, growth habits, and unique beauty—yet all have key traits in common.

Military family eating lunch at the Garden's USO Military Appreciation Day.

Military kid: Powerfully diverse in appearance, personality, and beauty—yet all have key traits in common.

Succulent plant

Succulent plants: Belong to many plant families, but all are classified as succulents because of the features they have in common.

Military family holding small terrariums made at the Garden.

Military families: Each family is unique, and many include extended family members for support, yet each family takes pride in—and draws strength from—the traditions, support, and high purpose that being part of the military offers.

One striking thing about the day was the eager participation of everyone who planned and worked on that day. Garden volunteers raced to sign up for shifts. Many cited their own family members in service and their strong desire to honor those who keep us safe and free. The USO of Illinois had an equally eager corps of volunteers who came to the Garden early on a Saturday morning to get the “goodie bags” filled and to register everyone. 

Kay Knight, horticultural therapy coordinator, was the Garden’s point person for planning the day. Kay worked with departments across the Garden and with USO of Illinois to make sure everything ran smoothly. According to the many, many compliments and thanks expressed, Kay succeeded! 

The USO families had fun doing activities together and enjoyed the red-carpet treatment. 

 


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org

Flora Brasil

Lenhardt Library celebrates Brazil in the Garden with a “Flora Brasil” special collections exhibition

Leora Siegel —  July 7, 2017 — Leave a comment

Brazil’s native flora has amazing diversity with differing biomes, including tropical rainforest, subtropical forest, tropical savanna, mangrove forest, tropical dry forest, wetland, and savanna.

Of the approximate 400,000 known plant species in the world, 55,000 are endemic to Brazil, and most of these are from the Amazon forest.

Brazilian bromeliads in the Crescent Garden

Bromeliads abound this summer throughout the Garden. There are more than 3,000 known species of bromeliads; 650 of these are native to Brazil. Many bromeliads have leaves that are spiraled and called a rosette. At the base of the rosette, the leaves may grow in an overlapping and tight form to become a place for water to collect.

Many of the foods we eat (like acai), industrial products we use (rubber tree and mahogany), medicines—even our houseplants in the Chicago region (orchids), depend on plants from this region. The unique flora of this area continues to be threatened by deforestation and urbanization, and plant species are at risk.

Books on display through October 15, 2017, in the Lenhardt Library’s Flora Brasil exhibition depict a plant exploration map, Brazilian aroid, and Brazilian bromeliads. An untitled original artwork by Brazilian landscape designer Roberto Burle Marx on loan from Longwood Gardens complements our main Joutras Galley exhibition of Marx’s work.

Roberto Burle Marx, Untitled, 1991, Courtesy of Longwood Gardens

Roberto Burle Marx, Untitled, 1991, Courtesy of Longwood Gardens

The library exhibition opens with an eighteenth-century map of South America with “the coast of Brazil being corrected” bound into the third edition in English of Voyage to South America: Describing, at Large, the Spanish Cities, Towns, Provinces on That Extensive Continent by Don Antonio de Ulloa and Don George Juan, 1772. Ulloa and Juan explored the region, observing and describing the flora, fauna, geology, minerals, indigenous population, and politics they encountered.

Map of a voyage to South America by Ulloa and Juan, 1772

18th century map of South America with “the coast of Brazil being corrected” from Voyage to South America: Describing, at Large, the Spanish Cities, Towns, Provinces on That Extensive Continent by Ulloa and Juan, 1772; Click here to view larger image

ILLUSTRATION: Philodendron cannaefolium by Heinrich Schott

Philodendron cannaefolium ‘Burle Marx’, a 24” x 30” detailed chromolithograph that is both scientifically accurate and stunning from Aroideae Maximilianae by Heinrich Schott, 1879.

A Brazilian aroid Philodendron cannaefolium (today known as Philodendron ‘Burle Marx’) is the centerpiece with a 24-inch-by-30-inch detailed chromolithograph that is both scientifically accurate and stunning. This 1879 work, Aroideae Maximilianae by Heinrich Schott, features 42 plates with delicate colors and clean lines. Schott was an Austrian botanist who traveled in Brazil from 1817 to 1821. He specialized in Araceae and throughout his career, he named 587 new-to-science species of aroids; by comparison, Linnaeus named six aroid species. 

Come also learn about Margaret Mee, who was an exceptional botanical artist, plant explorer, and environmentalist. Four reproductions of Mee’s “Brazilian Bromeliads” are on view. These are from a limited edition set published in Brazil in 1992.

Mee traveled to Brazil often, and went on fifteen botanical expeditions, mainly into the Amazon region. On these expeditions, she discovered several new plant species, painted more than 400 gouache pieces, and kept travel diaries detailing her adventures. Her passion for Brazilian flora coincided with the large-scale commercialization of the Amazon rainforest. She became an outspoken environmentalist, calling attention to the dangerous destruction of the biodiverse region. 

ILLUSTRATION: A Brazillian bromeliad by Margaret Mee

Margaret Mee’s Nidularium innocentii from Brazilian Bromeliads, reproduction, limited edition set published in Brazil, 1992.

Noted Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx cultivated plants that Mee brought back from her expeditions and used them in his landscape designs. Known for his bright and bold color choices, Marx was inspired by Mee’s paintings. Like Mee, he was concerned about the environmental impacts of the commercialization of the Brazilian Amazonian region.

Learn more about Mee, Marx, and Brazilian flora at our free Library Talks on July 16, August 22, and September 12 at 2 p.m. in the Lenhardt Library.


©2017 Chicago Botanic Garden and my.chicagobotanic.org